The Arabic alphabet is written in a cursive style, which means that most of the letters are connected to each other. This is in contrast to the Latin alphabet, which is written in a separate, disconnected form.
One of the unique features of the Arabic alphabet is that most of the letters have different forms depending on their position within a word. In this lesson, we will learn Arabic letters connected in a word.
Arabic Letters Connected
Most of the characters in the Arabic Alphabet connect to their neighboring letters. So, an Arabic letter can be at the beginning of a word or word segment, in the middle, or at the end of a word or word segment.
With the change in the position of a letter in a word or a word segment, the appearance of a letter also changes.
For example, the letter “baa” (ب) has four different forms depending on its position in a word: isolated, initial, medial, and final. The same is true for many of the other letters in the Arabic alphabet.
Arabic Letters Connections
The table below shows every scenario, i.e how each letter will be written in the beginning, middle and end of a word.
The most common Arabic letters connected patterns you will find are:
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How To Connect Arabic Letters
As there are so many different scenarios to remember, it is easier to remember the patterns.
All letters are written in their full form if they occur at the end of a word, some may slightly change shape.
Most letters do join to other letters in front of them, however, there are six letters which do not join to any letter after them, these letters are:
- Waw و
- Zay ز
- Ra ر
- Tha ذ
- Dal د
- Alif ا
There are groups of letters which have similar shapes in individual. These groups are also similar in joined form (e.g. /ب/, /ت/ and /ث/). The only difference in these letters is the number or positions of dots around the letter.
Whilst it is important to make an effort to look at the forms above, it is sometimes easier to look for the patterns rather than each individual letter.
For example, the following groups of letters are very similar in their joined forms, in most cases the only difference is the position or number of dots used in the letters:
- ب, ت and ث
- ج , ح and خ
- س and ش
- ص and ض
- د and ذ
The connecting or joining of the Arabic Alphabet can be a difficult subject to master. The reason for this is that the way a letter joins depends on:
The letter being used (e.g /Alif/, /Baa/ etc.) as different rules apply to different letters.
The position of the letter in the word (i.e. beginning, middle or end).
Unique letters – i.e there are 6 letters which do not join to any other letter (but can be joined to).
Finally, to master the different forms of joining will take some time and it is important to practice writing whilst learning the Arabic language to become familiar with the script.
This will come with practice, so it is not necessary to have mastered all the letters joining forms before moving on.
Do you know that:
- Arabic structure is different in Alphabet from any other Language.
- Arabic letters form words by connecting them together.
- Arabic Alphabet is written and read from right to left.
- Arabic Letters’ writing has three forms: initial, medial, and final i.e. different in shape according to their position.
- Letters in isolation and final are mostly the same in shape.
- Letters in the initial and medial positions are mostly the same in shape.
- You can find the correct pronunciation in Arabic just from the spelling of the word which is considered a no-trouble-trick of Arabic pronunciation.
- The Letter tā̛ ت; sometimes it is written like the letter hā̛ in its final form ـه yet with two dots above it ـة. This letter is mostly seen in its final position to indicate a feminine gender ending and is termed ” tā̛ Marbutah”.
- Few Arabic Written Letters could be only differentiated by their dots.
Arabic Letters can be divided into two groups according to their position.
- Cannot be joined on the left side.
- Can be joined to a preceding letter but never to a following one.
- Then, all Arabic Letters in the Alphabet could be connected from both sides except the following mentioned Letters.(see table above)
- Change shape according to their position in the word.
The connected style of writing in Arabic is an important aspect of the script that helps to give it its unique aesthetic and beauty. It is also an important aspect of the language itself, as it helps to distinguish certain letters and sounds and to create a sense of unity and coherence in the written language.