In Arabic, the consonants are divided into two groups, called the lam Shamsiya (sun letters) or solar letters and lam qamariya (moon letters) or lunar letters, based on whether they assimilate the letter lām (ﻝl) of a preceding Arabic definite article al- (الـ), which is an important general rule used in Arabic grammar and tajweed.
Phonetically, lam shamsiya are ones pronounced as coronal consonants, and lam qamariya are ones pronounced as other consonants. In this article, we will learn all the lam qamariya letters, examples, how to pronounce and how to identify them as well.
What Are The Lam Qamariya?
The Arabic moon letters called Huroof Al-Qamariyyah (حروف القمريّة) in Arabic language. There 14 moon letters (الحروف القمرية) in Arabic.
What Are Lam Qamariya Letters (Qamari Letters)?
The Arabic moon letters are called حروف القمريّة and pronounced as Huroof Al-Qamariyyah. There are 14 moon letters in Arabic language.
They are named after the word القمر (moon) because the pronunciation of the definite article in this word didn’t change since ق is one of the Moon letters.
The lam qamariya are as follow:
- Alif (أ) الألف
- Baa (ب) الباء
- Jim (ج) الجيم
- Haa’ (ح) الحاء
- Khaa (خ) الخاء
- Ain (ع) العين
- Ghayn (غ) الغين
- Faa (ف) الفاء
- Qaaf (ق) القاف
- Kaaf (ك) الكاف
- Mim (م) الميم
- Hā (ه) الهاء
- Waw (و) الواو
- Yaa (ي) الياء
There is nothing special about moon letters as they are pronounced and written normally when attached to the definite article ال.
Remember: When there is an article in front of The Moon letters the article “Al” is plainly written and pronounced as “Al”. Examples:
- Alqamaru ال + قمر = القمر
- Almaktabu ال + مكتب = المكتب
- Albina’u ال + بناء = البناء
- Alkursiyyu ال + كرسي = الكرسي
How To Remember Lam Qamariya Letters In Arabic?
To remember the moon letters, Arabs usually memorize this rhyme that contains all the qamariya-letters ُاِبْغِ حَجَّكَ وَخَفْ عَقِيْمَه. It is roughly translates as: ‘Perform Haj and be vary of quarrel’.
Lam Qamariya Examples
The table below shows some examples of all the qamari letters word in Arabic.
Definite nouns in Arabic begin with ال. The way the definite article is pronounced in Arabic language is determined by the letter after it. If the letter after the definite article is a qamariya letter the Lam ل of the definite article is pronounced.
These name comes from the fact that the word for the moon, Al Qamar, does not.