The plural in Arabic is one of the values of the grammatical category of number. The plural of a noun in Arabic typically denotes a quantity greater than two.
In this lesson, you will the meaning of plural in Arabic, explanation of the types of plural, how to change singular to plural, examples of plurals in Arabic and many more.
What Is The Word For Plural In Arabic?
The Arabic word for plural is جَمْع and the pronunciation is jam’. In Arabic, words are of three categories with regards to number: singular (مُفْرَد), indicating one, dual (مُثَنَّى), indicating two and plural (جَمْع) indicating more than two.
In Arabic there are two types of plural – the sound plural and the broken plural. The sound plural is further divided into two: feminine sound plural and masculine sound plural.
3 Types Of Plural In Arabic
The three types of plural in Arabic are as follows:
- Sound masculine plural
- Sound feminine plural
- Broken plural
Sound Plural In Arabic
The Arabic word for sound plural is called جَمْع السالمِ and the pronunciation is jam’ as-salim. In Arabic, the sound plural is one in which the singular form of the word remains intact (sound) with some addition at the end.
Arabic sound Plural are created simply by adding a suffix to the singular form (ـوْنَ or ـيْنَ for the masculine and ـاتٌ for the feminine). It is of two types:
Sound Masculine Plural
The Arabic word for sound masculine plural is called جَمْع المُذَكَّرِ السالمِ and pronounced as jam’ al mudhakkar as-salim.
The sound masculine plurals are the plurals for masculine Arabic nouns like Muslimun. These plurals are sound because they have regular plural endings.
When we form the sound masculine plural from a singular noun, we do not change the form of the singular noun, we just add the suffix (ending) ون in thenominative case and يــن to the end of the singular noun in the accusative and genitive.
You should note that not all singular nouns are able to form the sound masculine plural, there are some conditions that have to be present in the singular noun to be able to form the sound plural.
- It has to be a masculine (not feminine) noun.
- It has to be singular (to form the plural).
- It has to be an adjective for a rational or living person (human being).
The adjectives must be related to living (rational) persons and we could therefore form the sound plural.
If the adjective is for a non rational (non living), we cannot form the sound plural from it, but we express the meaning of the plural by using its singular feminine form.
Examples Of Masculine Sound Plural
The following table is examples of masculine plural and their corresponding endings.
|Singular||Nominative case||Accusative case||Genitive case||Meaning|
Sound Feminine Plural
The Arabic word for sound feminine plural is called جَمْع المُؤَنَّثِ السالمِ and pronounced as jam’ al mu’annath as-salim.
The sound feminine plural is defined in Arabic as “every plural feminine word suffixed with (ات) added to the singular form without changing the structure or the voweling of the singular form.
What happens is that we replaced ة with ات.
The only condition to say that this word is a sound feminine plural is that it should have ات suffix. When this suffix is deleted, we will have the singular intact again.
For example, if we delete the plural prefix ” ات ” from the word ” فَاطِمات” and restore the ” ة “, we will have the intact singular ” فاطِمَةُ ” again.
They always end with ات. It remains the same regardless of the position of the sound feminine plural noun in the sentence.
The parsing marks of this type of noun is similar to that of singular nouns, that they get DHammah, if nominative, and kasrah, if accusative or genitive.
Examples Of Sound Feminine Plural
The following table is examples of sound feminine plural and their corresponding endings.
Broken Plural In Arabic (Irregular Plurals In Arabic)
What is broken plural in Arabic?
The Arabic word for broken plurals is جَمْعُ التَّكْسِيْر. The broken plural is one in which the form of the singular word is broken, that is, changed. It has no fixed rule for making it.
Sometimes alphabets are added or deleted and sometimes there is merely a change in the harakat (vowels).
Broken Plural In Arabic Examples
Here are some examples of broken plurals in Arabic.
Verbal Plurals In Arabic
The plural marker with verbs is ون in the case of sound masculine plural and نْ in the case of sound feminine plural.
If the verb is subjunctive or jussive, the ن of sound masculine plural marker is dropped and replace by ا (alif). The نْ of the sound feminine plural remains the same regardless of the mood of the verb.
- Indicative يُعَالِجْن يَكْتُبْنَ يِشْرَحُون
- Subjective يُعَالِجْن يَكْتُبْنَ يِشْرَحُوا
- Jussive عَالِجْنَ يَكْتُبْنَ اِشْرَحُوا
For the plural marker suffix (i.e. ون, وا, or نْ) to appear on the verb, the plural noun must precede the verb. That is, if the plural noun appears after the verb, the verb is always singular in form.
Friends In Arabic Plural
The plural of friends in Arabic is أصْدِقاء and the pronunciation is asdiqaa’. It is a broken plural.
Plural of Book in Arabic
The plural of book in Arabic is كُتُب and it is pronounced as kutub.
Plural of chair in Arabic
The plural of chair in Arabic is كَرَاسِي and the pronunciation is karaasiy.
Plural of big in Arabic
The common plural word for big in Arabic is كِبَار (kibar), masculine plural كُبَرَاء (kubara), feminine plural كَبِيرَات (kabirat) or كَبَائِر (kabaʾir), elative أَكْبَر (akbar).
Plural of room in Arabic
The plural of room in Arabic is غُرَف and the pronunciation is guraf.