In this article, we will look at the huruf muqatta’at meaning, how many are there in Quran, which Surahs begins with huruf muqatta’at and many more. So let’s begins.
Huruf Muqatta’at Meaning
Huruf muqatta’at written in Arabic as الحروف المقطعة literally means shortened or abbreviated. They are unique Arabic letter combinations that begin certain Surahs of the Glorious Quran.
Huruf muqatta’at are also known as Fawatih (فواتح) or openers as they form the opening verse of the respective chapters.
These letters are written together like a word in Arabic language, however each letter is pronounced separately.
Muqatta’at has been the subject of extensive research and academic discussions in Islamic literature, Quranic sciences, and Western scholars as well.
The meaning of these letters is a Divine secret known to no one but Allah.
How Many Huroof Muqatta at In Quran?
There are fourteen huruf muqatta’at making up thirteen different sets of Qur’anic initials found in various combinations at the beginning of twenty-nine chapters. They are either in the form of single letters at the beginning of some chapters or are found in different combinations of up three to five letters at the beginning of other chapters.
In Quran, the total number of surahs that starts with huruf muqatta’at are twenty nine. It should be noted that there are 28 (twenty eight) letters in Arabic alphabet and half of these 28 letters are used at the beginning of chapters and called huruful muqatta’at.
These 14 letters that are used in different combinations as Qur’anic initials appear more frequently in the Qur’an than the other letters of the Arabic alphabet.
The 14 (fourteen) Huroof Muqatta at are:
- alif أ
- ha ح
- ra ر
- sin س
- sad ص
- ta ط
- ain ع
- qaf ق
- kaf ك
- lam ل
- mim م
- nun ن
- ha ه
- ya ي
Quran Surahs That Begins With Huruf Muqatta’at
Out of the 114 Surahs (Chapters) of the Quran, Muqataat appear at the beginning of 29 chapters in the Quran. Twenty seven are Makkan surahs while only 2 (Baqarah and Ali-‘Imran) are Madinan surahs.
They appear in the beginning of these chapters in groups of one, two, three, four, or five, and are seen in 13 different forms.
Surahs That Begin With One Huruf Muqatta’at
There are three surahs that begin with one muqatta’at, they are:
- Surah Qāf ق Qaf
- Surah Qalam ن Noon
- Surah Sad ص Ṣād
Surahs That Begin With Two Huruf Muqatta’at
There are nine chapters that begin with two muqatta’at, they are:
- Surah Taha طه Ṭā Hā
- Surah Naml طس Ṭā Sīn
- Surah Yaseen يس Yā Sīn
- Surah Ghafir حم Ḥā Mīm
- Surah Fussilat حم Ḥā Mīm
- Surah Zukhuruf حم Ḥā Mīm
- Surah Dukhan حم Ḥā Mīm
- Surah Jaathiya حم Ḥā Mīm
- Surah Ahqaf حم Ḥā Mīm
Surahs That Begin With Three Huruf Muqatta’at
There are thirteen chapters that begin with three muqatta’at, they are:
- Surah Baqarah الم ʾAlif Lām Mīm
- Surah Al Imran الم ʾAlif Lām Mīm
- Surah Yunus الر ʾAlif Lām Rā
- Surah Hud الر ʾAlif Lām Rā
- Surah Yusuf الر ʾAlif Lām Rā
- Surah Ibrahim الر ʾAlif Lām Rā
- Surah Hijr الر ʾAlif Lām Rā
- Surah Shu’ara طسم Ṭā Sīn Mīm
- Surah Qasas طسم Ṭā Sīn Mīm
- Surah Ankabut الم ʾAlif Lām Mīm
- Surah Rum الم ʾAlif Lām Mīm
- Surah Luqman الم ʾAlif Lām Mīm
- Surah Sajadah الم ʾAlif Lām Mīm
Surahs That Begin With Four Huruf Muqatta’at
There are two chapters that begin with four muqatta’at, they are:
- Surah A’araf المص ʾAlif Lām Mīm Ṣād
- Surah Raad المر ʾAlif Lām Mīm Rā
Surahs That Begin With Five Huruf Muqatta’at
There are two chapters that begin with five muqatta’at, they are:
- Surah Maryam كهيعص Kāf Hā Yā ʿAin Ṣād
- Surah Shuraa حم عسق Ḥā Mīm; ʿAin Sīn Qāf
The table below summarized those 29 Surahs with the Muqataat:
|Surah Order||Name Of Surah||No. of Muqatta’at||Huruf Muqatta’at||Transliteration|
|02||Baqarah||3||الم||ʾAlif Lām Mīm|
|03||Al Imran||3||الم||ʾAlif Lām Mīm|
|07||Al-Aʿarāf||4||المص||ʾAlif Lām Mīm Ṣād|
|10||Yunus||3||الر||ʾAlif Lām Rā|
|11||Hud||3||الر||ʾAlif Lām Rā|
|12||Yusuf||3||الر||ʾAlif Lām Rā|
|13||Raad||4||المر||ʾAlif Lām Mīm Rā|
|14||Ibrahim||3||الر||ʾAlif Lām Rā|
|15||Hijr||3||الر||ʾAlif Lām Rā|
|19||Maryam||5||كهيعص||Kāf Hā Yā ʿAin Ṣād|
|20||Ta ha||2||طه||Ṭā Hā|
|26||Shua’ra||3||طسم||Ṭā Sīn Mīm|
|28||Qasas||3||طسم||Ṭā Sīn Mīm|
|29||Ankabut||3||الم||ʾAlif Lām Mīm|
|30||Rum||3||الم||ʾAlif Lām Mīm|
|31||Luqman||3||الم||ʾAlif Lām Mīm|
|32||Sajda||3||الم||ʾAlif Lām Mīm|
|42||Shura||5||حم عسق||Ḥā Mīm; ʿAin Sīn Qāf|
A group of scholars, including the Rightly-Guided Khaleefahs (may Allaah be pleased with them) and others among the Sahaabah, Taabi’een, and their followers, refrained from interpreting beginning of surahs containing al-huroof al-muqatta’ah [letters found at the beginning of several soorahs].
It was not narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) interpreted them, so it is preferable for us to say Allaah knows best what they mean.
However, it was reported that some mufassireen among the Sahaabah, Taabi’een, and their followers did interpret them, and their interpretations differed.
Some of the scholars tried to discover the wisdom behind these letters and said:
These letters are mentioned – and Allaah knows best – at the beginning of soorahs which point to the miraculous nature of the Qur’aan, which implies that all mankind is unable to match it, even though it is composed of the letters that they use in their daily speech.
This was the view supported by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) and was approved of by Abu’l-Hajjaaj al-Mazzi (may Allaah have mercy on him). And Allaah is the Source of strength.
May Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad and his family and companions, and grant them peace.