Surah al ikhlas is Surah 112 in the Quran. It composed of only four verses and considered as one of the shortest chapters in the Quran.
Surah Al Ikhlas (Surah 112) In Arabic
بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
- قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ
- اللَّهُ الصَّمَدُ
- لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ
- وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ
- Qul huwal laahu ahad
- Allah hus-samad
- Lam yalid wa lam yoolad
- Wa lam yakul-lahoo kufuwan ahad.
Surah 112 (Surah Al Ikhlas) Translation In English
- Say, “The truth is: Allah is One.
- 2. Allah is Besought of all, needing none.
- 3. He neither begot anyone, nor was begotten.
- 4. And equal to Him has never been any one!’
Commentary On Surah 112 From Ma’Ariful Quran.
Cause of Revelation
Tirmidhi, Hakim and others have recorded that the pagans of Makkah asked the Messenger of Allah SAW:
“0 Muhammad! Tell us about the ancestry of your Lord.” So Allah revealed this Surah.
Some narratives ascribe this inquiry to the Jews of Madiah. In view of these conflicting reports, there is a divergence of opinion as to whether this is a Makki Surah or Madani Surah.
According to Sayyidna ‘Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud &, Hasan Basri, Ata, ‘Ikrimah and Jabir, the Surah is Makki and, according to Qatadah, Dahhak and others, it is Madani.
According to one narration of Sayyidna ‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Abbas, it is Makki and, according to another, it is Madani.
According to another narration, the pagans added to their question whether Allah was made of gold, silver or some other stuff, in response to which this SGrah was revealed.
Virtues of the Surah
Imam Ahmad has recorded a narration in his Musnad that a person came up to the Messenger of Allah and said, “I love this Surah [Al-Ikhlas] immensely.”
The Holy Prophet SAW replied: “Your love for it will cause you to enter Paradise. ” [Ibn Kathir].
Tirmidhi has recorded on the authority of Sayyidna Abu Hurairah & that once the Messenger of Allah asked the people to gather and said: “I shall recite to you a third of the Qur’an?”
When the people had congregated, he recited Surah Al-Ikhlas and said: “This is equal to a third of the Qur’an.” [Muslim].
In a lengthy Hadith, Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi and Nasa’i have recorded that the Messenger of Allah said:
In another narration, the wordings are: “They will suffice him against every affliction.”]. [Ibn Kathir]
Oneness of Allah
Verse 1 Say, (The truth is: Allah is One.)
The imperative qul (Say) is directly addressed to the Holy Prophet Muhammad SAW, thus indicating that he is Allah’s Prophet and Messenger.
This verse directs and commands him to convey Allah’s message to mankind. ‘Allah’ is the personal name of that Necessary Being Whose non-existence is inconceivable.
He comprises all the attributes of perfection and is free from, or above, or overrides all kinds of imperfections.
The epithets ahad and tawhid are both applied to Allah which are normally translated as ‘One’ but the word ahad includes an additional sense which signifies that Allah is beyond composition, plurality and resemblance, which means that He is neither composed of any elements, nor does He have any partner, nor has He any resemblance to anything.
This is a response to those who asked about Allah whether He is made of gold or silver or pearls.
This concise statement covers all aspects of discussion on the Divine Being and His attributes.
The imperative qul [say] points to the messengership of the Holy Prophet SAW. If analyzed properly, this brief sentence covers all the detailed discussions expounded in voluminous books of theology.
Verse 2 (Allah is Besought of all, needing none)
The word samad bears several literal senses. Therefore, the Qur’anic exegetical scholars have assigned different meanings to this verse.
Tabarani, the leading authority on Prophetic Traditions, in his hitab-us-Sunnah, has collected all the interpretations of the Divine attribute As-samad and concluded that they are all authentic, and comprehend all the attributes of our Lord that have been assigned to Him,
but originally it refers to ‘the chief who has no superior and to whom the people turn for the fulfilment of their desires and needs; thus all people depend on him, but he does not depend on any one.’ [Ibn Kathir].
Allah is Above having Children and Procreating
Verse 3 (He neither begot anyone, nor was begotten.)
This verse responds to those who had questioned about the ancestry of Allah. There is no analogy between Allah, the Creator, and His creation.
While His creation comes into being through the biological process of procreation, Allah Himself has no children, nor is He the child of anyone.
Verse 4 (And equal to Him has never been any one.)
The word kufuwan, as used in the original, means an ‘example’, a ‘similar thing’, ‘one equal in rank and position’.
Thus this verse means that there is no one in the entire universe, nor ever was, nor ever can be, who is similar to Allah, or equal in rank with Him, or resembling Him in His attributes, works and powers in any degree whatsoever.
Surah Al-Ikhlas: A Comprehensive Concept of Allah’s Oneness and a complete Negation of Shirk
There were many types of people who denied the Divine Oneness, and set up partners or rivals to Allah.
Surah Al-Ikhlas negates all types of such wrong belief systems, and imparts a comprehensive lesson of Divine Oneness.
Among the unbelievers, several types riay be identified.
- There is a group that denies the very existence of God [the atheists].
- Another group believes in the existence of God, but denies that His existence is ‘Necessary’.
- A third group believes in God’s existence and in His existence as ‘Necessary’ but denies His attributes of perfection.
- A fourth group believes in God’s Necessary Existence and in His attributes of perfection, but denies Oneness of God and believes in and worship more than one gods and goddesses, and thus practices polytheism.
Verse 1 refutes vehemently all such false belief systems.
Verse 2 refers to the practices of those who do worship Allah alone, but believe that there are also other helpers who can fulfil their needs, desires and ambitions. The Divine attributerls-samad denounces outright any such notion.
A fifth group ascribes children to Allah and the phrase lam yalid [He neither begot anyone] repudiates this notion of theirs in the strongest terms.
Allah, the Pure and Exalted, knows best!