The Tashahhud means testimony [of faith] and it is also known as at-Tahiyyat which means greetings. It is the portion of the Muslim prayer where a person kneels or sits on the ground facing the qibla, glorifies Allah, and greets the messenger and the righteous people of Allah followed by the two testimonials.
How can we write or read Tashahhud in Arabic text, transliteration and Tashahhud In English is the topic of discussion in this post.
Tashhahud is a pillar of salat, it’s not mandatory only it’s a pillar in the last rakah of the salat. But it is mandatory in the first sitting if the prayer is composed of three or four rakaas.
There are a number of dua after tashhahud before ending of the prayer.
Tashahhud in Arabic Text
التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ، وَالصَّلَواتُ، وَالطَّيِّباتُ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ. أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ وَرَسولُهُ
Attahiyyaatu lillaahi wassalawaatu, wattayyibaatu, assalaamu ‘alayka ‘ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuhu, assalaamu ‘alaynaa wa ‘alaa ‘ibaadillaahis-saaliheen. ‘Ash-hadu ‘an laa ‘ilaaha ‘illallaahu wa ‘ash-hadu ‘anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa Rasooluhu.
Tashahhud In English
The meaning of Tashahhud in English is All greetings of humility are for Allah, and all prayers and goodness. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be upon us and upon the righteous slaves of Allah. I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship but Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger.
Hadiths on Tashahhud
Narrated Ibn Mas`ud: Allah’s Messenger SAW taught me the Tashahhud as he taught me a Surah from the Qur’an, while my hand was between his hands.
(Tashahhud was) all the best compliments and the prayers and the good things are for Allah. Peace and Allah’s Mercy and Blessings be on you, O Prophet! Peace be on us and on the pious slaves of Allah, I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and I also testify that Muhammad is Allah’s slave and His Apostle.
(We used to recite this in the prayer) during the lifetime of the Prophet (SAW), but when he had died, we used to say, “Peace be upon the Prophet.”
Reference Sahih al-Bukhari 6265
Abdullah IbnMas`ud said:
While observing prayer behind the Messenger of Allah SAW we used to recite: Peace be upon Allah, peace be upon so and so. One day the Messenger of Allah SAW said to us: Verily Allah is Himself Peace.
When any one of you sits during the prayer, he should say:
All services rendered by words, by acts of worship, and all good things are due to Allah. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and Allah’s mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and upon Allah’s upright servants, for when he says this it reaches every upright servant in the heavens and the earth.
(And say further): I testify that there is no god but Allah and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger. Then he may choose any supplication which pleases him and offer it.
Reference Sahih Muslim 402
Abdullah bin Zubair narrated on the authority of his father that when the Messenger of Allah SAW sat for supplication, i. e. tashahhud (blessing and supplication), he placed his right hand on his right thigh and his left hand on his left thigh, and pointed with his forefinger, and placed his thumb on his (milddle) finger, and covered his knee with the palm of his left hand.
Narrated Abdullah bin Malik bin Buhaina:
Once Allah’s Messenger led us in the Zuhr prayer and got up (after the prostrations of the second rak`a) although he should have sat (for the Tashahhud). So at the end of the prayer, he prostrated twice while sitting (prostrations of Sahu).
Sahih al-Bukhari 830
Is Tashahhud Obligatory?
The final tashahhud is a pillar or essential part of the prayer, and the first tahahhud is an obligatory part.
You should adhere to the wording of the adhkaar that have been prescribed for the prayer and other matters, and should refrain from changing any part of them as much as possible.